|Series||CMAT -- (70) 3|
|The Physical Object|
Urbanization, the process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities. Whatever the numerical definition of an ‘urban place,’ it is clear that the course of human history has been marked by a process of accelerated urbanization. Continuing population growth and urbanization are projected to add billion people to the world’s urban population by , with nearly 90% of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. The fastest growing urban agglomerations are medium-sized cities and cities with less than 1 million inhabitants located in Asia and Africa. Urbanization is commonly associated with increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) discharge into urban streams and reservoirs (Alberti et al. ;Carle et al. . Introduction. Indoor air concentrations have been reported for homes in the U.S., Canada, and Europe in a number of large studies such as TEAM, NHEXAS, TEACH, EXPOLIS, and RIOPA, where the majority of the homes sampled, though not all, have been in urban settings ().There have also been smaller studies examining indoor air, again focusing on .
Annual mean NO 2 concentrations over Europe in estimated with 10x10 km 2 resolution. Based on EMEP modelling and AirBase rural and urban background stations. 1. Introduction. With rapid economic development, industrial expansion, and urbanization in China over the past three decades, haze and smog episodes characterized by high concentrations of fine particulate matter (≤ μm in aerodynamic diameters; PM ) have occurred more frequently in episodes have been focused in the most developed . Figure 1: Benzene personal exposure level cannot be calculated as a time-weighted average of outdoor and indoor mean concentrations owing to large hourly urban pollution oscillations. In such an eventuality, large urban areas would have airshed pollutant concentrations that would be absolutely lower than those in smaller urban areas, rather than simply being better than expected (i.e. pollutant concentrations would scale negatively rather than sub-linearly with population, resulting in an 'urbanization dividend', see figure.
Books at Amazon. The Books homepage helps you explore Earth's Biggest Bookstore without ever leaving the comfort of your couch. Here you'll find current best sellers in books, new releases in books, deals in books, Kindle eBooks, Audible audiobooks, and . Many cities in the EU are characterised by their urban paradoxes. Urban areas in the EU are often characterised by high concentrations of economic activity, employment and wealth with the daily flow of commuters into many of Europe’s largest cities suggesting that opportunities abound in these hubs of innovation, distribution and consumption. However, cities in the EU are also . However, a large negative bias in NO 2 concentrations is observed at kerbside sites, especially at high concentrations, and a positive bias of O 3 concentrations exists across all site types. Fig. 3 Scatter plots of hourly observed and modelled NO 2 concentrations (ppb), at kerbside, roadside, urban background and suburban sites in Today, annual average concentrations in most European cities have fallen to less than 30 µg/m3. In eastern Europe much higher concentrations still occur as, to a lesser extent, they do in southern European cities such as Athens. Brown coal (lignite) is a key source of particles in many parts of eastern Europe.